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Mukhtasar - 1

2016-12-28
December 28, 2016

 

KHALฤชL’S ABRIDGMENT:

Bilingual text and explanation

 

The author:

Name: Khalฤซl

Father’s name: Ishฤq

Grandfather’s name: Mลซsฤ

Patronymic: Abลซ Muhammad / Abu’l-Mawaddah

Agnomen: Al-Jundฤซ

Reason for agnomen: He was one of the soldiers of the supported circle, and used to wear their uniform as a sign of asceticism and contraction away from the devotees of this world, thereby combining knowledge and action. His ancestry had a long-lasting association with the army. He took part in the military campaign to reconquer Alexandria after the city had been captured by the Crusader enemies in 770 AH

Epithet: Diyฤ’ ad-Dฤซn (the Light of the Dฤซn)

Madhhab: Mฤlikฤซ (His father, a friend of Allah, was Hanafฤซ, but as his son used to cling to the company of ‘Abdullฤh b. al-Hฤjj, the author of Al-Madkhal, and of Shaykh ‘Abdullฤh al-Manลซfฤซ, he became Mฤlikฤซ)

Place of birth: The land of the Kinฤnah tribe in Cairo, where he grew up and received knowledge

Date of death: 13 Rabฤซ` al-Awaal, 776 (or 767) AH

Place of burial: The main cemetery in Cairo, next to his teacher ‘Abdullฤh al-Manลซfฤซ

His post-death state: Some seekers of knowledge saw him in their dreams after his death and asked him what Allah had done to him, whereupon he replied, ‘He forgave me and whoever performed my funeral prayer’

His authorial legacy: It includes:

-         At-Tawdฤซh, a large-size commentary on Ibn al-Hฤjib’s own juristic abridgment, viz. Jฤmi` al-Ummahฤt

-         Al-Mukhtasar

-         A concise work on the rites of hajj

Each one of these works has been published.

 

Author’s introduction

(ู…ูู‚ูŽุฏู‘ูู…ูŽุฉู ุงู„ู…ูุคูŽู„ู‘ูู)

 

In the Name of Allah, the All-Merciful, the Most Merciful

(ุจุณู… ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุงู„ุฑุญู…ู† ุงู„ุฑุญูŠู…)

 

ูŠูŽู‚ูˆู„ู ุงู„ุนูŽุจู’ุฏู ุงู„ููŽู‚ูŠุฑู ุงู„ู…ูุถู’ุทูŽุฑู‘ู ู„ูุฑูŽุญู’ู…ูŽุฉู ุฑูŽุจู‘ูู‡ูุŒ

The needy slave compelled towards the mercy of his Lord,

ุงู„ู…ูู†ู’ูƒูŽุณูุฑู ุฎุงุทูุฑูู‡ู ู„ูู‚ูู„ู‘ูŽุฉู ุงู„ุนูŽู…ูŽู„ู ูˆุงู„ุชู‘ูŽู‚ู’ูˆูŽู‰:

whose heart is painfully dismembered due to the dearth of virtuous action and taqwฤ:

 ุฎูŽู„ูŠู„ู ุจู’ู†ู ุฅูุณู’ุญุงู‚ู ุงู„ู…ุงู„ููƒููŠ

Khalฤซl b. Ishฤq al-Mฤlikฤซ, says:

ุงู„ุญูŽู…ู’ุฏู ู„ูู„ู‘ู‡ู ุญูŽู…ู’ุฏุงู‹ ูŠููˆุงููŠ ู…ุง ุชูŽุฒุงูŠูŽุฏูŽ ู…ูู†ูŽ ุงู„ู†ู‘ูุนูŽู…ูุŒ

The whole praise belongs to Allah, a praise commensurate with the increasing overflow of blessings,

 ูˆูŽุงู„ุดู‘ููƒู’ุฑู ู„ูŽู‡ู ุนูŽู„ูŽู‰ ู…ุฃ ุฃูˆู’ู„ุงู†ุง ู…ูู†ูŽ ุงู„ููŽุถู’ู„ู ูˆูŽุงู„ูƒูŽุฑูŽู…ู

and gratitude, too, is entirely owed to Him because of the favour and generosity He has bestowed upon us.

ู„ุง ุฃุญู’ุตูŠ ุซูŽู†ุงุกู‹ ุนูู„ูŽูŠู’ู‡ูุŒ ู‡ููˆูŽ ูƒูŽู…ุง ุฃูŽุซู’ู†ูŽู‰ ุนูŽู„ูŽู‰ ู†ูŽูู’ุณูู‡ู.

I am unable to laud Him. He is as He has lauded Himself.

 ูˆูŽู†ูŽุณู’ุฃูŽู„ูู‡ู ุงู„ู„ู‘ูุทู’ููŽ ูˆูŽุงู„ุฅูุนุงู†ูŽุฉ ููŠ ุฌูŽู…ูŠุนู ุงู„ุฃูŽุญู’ูˆุงู„ูุŒ ูˆูŽุญุงู„ู ุญูู„ูˆู„ู ุงู„ุฅูู†ู’ุณุงู†ู ููŠ ุฑูŽู…ู’ุณูู‡ู.

We ask Him for His subtly-encompassing kindness and His assistance in all the states, also in the state where man lodges in his grave.

ูˆูŽุงู„ุตู‘ูŽู„ุงุฉู ูˆุงู„ุณู‘ูŽู„ุงู…ู ุนูŽู„ูŽู‰ ู…ูุญูŽู…ู‘ูŽุฏู ุณูŽูŠู‘ูุฏู ุงู„ุนูŽุฑูŽุจู ูˆูŽุงู„ุนูŽุฌูŽู…ูุŒ

May the prayer of ennoblement and the salutation of peace be upon Muhammad, master of the Arabs and the non-Arabs alike,

ุงู„ู…ูŽุจู’ุนูˆุซู ู„ูุณุงุฆุฑู ุงู„ุฃูู…ูŽู…ูุŒ ูˆูŽุนูŽู„ูŽู‰ ุขู„ูู‡ู ูˆูŽุฃุตู’ุญุงุจูู‡ู ูˆูŽุฃุฒู’ูˆุงุฌูู‡ู ูˆูŽุฐูุฑู‘ููŠูŽุชูู‡ู ูˆุฃูู…ู‘ูŽุชูู‡ู ุฃูŽูู’ุถูŽู„ู ุงู„ุฃูู…ูŽู…ู.

who has been sent to all the nations, on his family, companions, wives and descendants, and on his nation, the best nation.

ูˆูŽุจูŽุนู’ุฏู:

Having said that:

 

“… says”:

The author chose the present tense (yaqลซlu) over the past one because the outward potentiality, i.e. the whole abridgment, was to unfold itself in the future at the time of his inaugural speech, given that its composition was expected to take a long time.

 

“… compelled towards his Lord”:

Mudtarr means the one who reaches extremes of neediness, whom neediness has coerced, so that he sees neither strength nor power in himself, and likewise sees no intermediate cause he might rely upon save the succour of his Master, as in the case of the person drowning in the sea or lost in a waterless desert.

It is thus more specific than faqฤซr.

The move is thus from the lower to the higher.

 

“… painfully dismembered”:

Munkasir means the one who is paining, aching, who is doleful.

It is a noun of the agent from inkisฤr which originally (= literally) denotes the dismemberment / fragmentation into parts of something stiff / solid / hard.

In this passage, inkisฤr is used figuratively, based on the fact that pain is occasioned by breaking something into parts.

In rhetoric, this is called majฤz mursal (metonymy [1] / synecdoche)

 

“[H]eart”:

It translates the Arabic khฤtir, which is here other than a mere “thought” in the mind.

Originally, the word khawฤtir (plural of khฤtir) denoted the matters that descend upon the heart (such as ideas and thoughts); it was secondarily extended to the heart itself, since it is the locus by which those matters alight = again an example of majฤz mursal or metonymy.

 

“Khalฤซl”:

Khalฤซl is a proper noun (‘alam) originating in a qualificative (sifah) = the one whose quality is khullah, i.e. pure / uncorrupted / undiluted / crystalline affection.

Khullah is also used to signify the khalฤซl = the person qualified thereby, whether masculine or feminine.

Khalฤซl might also denote khallah = poverty, indigence, neediness, as in a verse by the famous Arab poet Zuhayr b. Abฤซ Salmฤ (520-609 AH).

 

“Grave”:

It translates the Arabic word rams, the original linguistic meaning of which is throwing or casting. It is thus used metaphorically here.



[1] A figure of speech in which one word or phrase is substituted for another with which it is closely associated (such as “crown” for “royalty”) [So long as the close association is not resemblance, for then we talk in Arabic rhetoric of isti`ฤrah or metaphor; here the link is causation].

 



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