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Q & A

2014-04-12
April 12, 2014

 

As-salāmu ‘alaykum

We begin a Q&A service, which we intend, Allah the Exalted willing, to become a permanent feature of the Sulwān Institute, and as such only available to subscribers, to ensure earnestness, commitment and continuity of service [Unless a waqf arrangement makes one dispense with the need for subscription].
To test the ground, as a kind of provisional exercise, we will select some of the most interesting questions reaching us from different sources, in English or in Italian.
Auspiciously, we begin with a question from Sicily, the largest Mediterranean island who witnessed a noble experiment of Islam in Europe.


D:

Recarsi al proprio lavoro è inteso come viaggio oppure no?
Quale è la distanza minima per potere accorciare la preghiera?


R:

Se la distanza è tale da consentire l’accorciamento della preghiera, il fatto che tu sia un viaggiatore per motivi di lavoro, anche giornaliero e dunque ricorrente, non incide sulla legittimità di pregare in forma abbreviata, purchè il lavoro non sia di natura peccaminosa.
Anzi, è consentito anche a una persona come un tassista che fa del viaggio il suo mestiere accorciare la preghiera a condizione che la distanza minima è raggiunta.

Tale distanza è costituita nel madhhab malechita da 48 miglia o 77,616 chilometri (considerando la sola andata).
Immagino che, nel tuo caso, copri più o meno la stessa distanza in ambedue i viaggi di andata e ritorno, senza fermarti nel tuo luogo di residenza nel corso di quest’ultimo.  

D:

Poniamo il caso che uno parta (oltre la detta distanza minima) sapendo di essere impegnato in una riunione di lavoro e che però, dato l'orario, sa di riuscire a ritornare in tempo almeno per l' ‘Asr... che si fa?

R: Recita la preghiera dello Zuhr accorciata come viaggiatore.

D: Quindi non è necessario accorpare per forza le due preghiere?

R: No. Le accorpi come viaggiatore se sai che arriverai a destinazione poco prima del tramonto o dopo il tramonto, in qual caso puoi pregare l'Asr nel tempo dello Zuhr [Se e' legittimo per un viaggiatore accorpare 2 preghiere, non e' necessario che il suo viaggio raggiunga la distanza minima: se e' inferiore, le accorpa pregandole al completo, 4 unita' (raka`at) ciascuna].

D: Mettiamo il caso che ho una riunione che all’inizio prevedo mi terrà impegnato fino al Maghrib, quindi faccio le preghiere di conseguenza, salvo il fatto che, dopo, vengo a sapere che tale impegno mi dura meno del previsto e quindi riesco infine a ritornare per il tempo dello ‘Asr... ora quello che ho sempre fatto era di pregare di nuovo l’ ‘Asr considerando quindi la prima preghiera, quella fatta accorpata con lo Zuhr, come nāfilah: è corretto?

R: No, la preghiera dell’ ‘Asr accorciata e accorpata alla precedente è valida, visto che è stata pregata in virtù di una ragione legittimata dal Dīn = una facilitazione prevista dalla Legge. Ti è comunque permesso ripeterla una volta tornato a casa quale azione meritoria (= sulla base del nadb e ciò che è raccomandabile, ma non obbligatorio).

 

***

 

Q: Would you like to say something more about joining prayers when traveling?

 

A: I would like to say it is a permissible concession.

 

You must have the intention (niyyah) to join Zuhr / ‘Asr or Maghrib/’Ishā’.

Let us say that you are in one place and intend, at the time of departing from it before the time for ‘Asr, to reach your destination after sunset. In that case, you can intend to join Zuhr and ‘Asr by anticipating the latter = that is called jam` taqdÐm. You then perform the former in its chosen time and you advance ‘Asr, which you perform in combination with Zuhr and immediately after it, before you depart from that place, since that is the obligatory time for praying ‘Asr from your viewpoint as traveller. It is an instance of the Law easing things for the mukallaf.

If you have intended to reach your destination during the time for ‘Asr, past its chosen time but before the rays of the sun turn yellow, you are given a choice either to advance it and perform it in combination with Zuhr before you depart from where you are, or to delay performing it until you have reached your destination, which is the better of the two choices.

 

Let us say that you are travelling and that, while doing so, the sun reaches its zenith (zawāl):

If you intend reaching your destination at the time that the rays of the sun turn yellow or even before that, you retard performance of ‘Asr until you reach your destination.

If, instead, you intend reaching your destination after sunset, you perform each of Zuhr and ‘Asr in its chosen time. While on your journey you stop (= alight), perform Zuhr towards the end of its chosen time, and shortly thereafter perform ‘Asr right at the beginning of its own time. That is termed “ostensible” or “apparent joining” (jam` sūrī). It is not a real joining of prayers, but it looks as if it is = it shares its form.

It is the same when the sun reaches its zenith as you are travelling and you have not made up your mind as to the time of arrival at your destination (= you do not know it in advance and are thus uncertain about it): You are entitled to pray each of the two prayers in its chosen time (end of it; beginning of it respectively) with an “ostensible joining” (jam` sūrī). The identical ruling applies to a sick person, whether he suffers from a gastric / intestinal ailment or from some other sickness, who is resident (= in his home place and not travelling). As for a healthy resident person, he is allowed to pray the pair of them by jam` sūrī, but he misses the reward of praying Zuhr early, so there is an element of reprehensibility.

 

What has been said about the pair Zuhr / ‘Asr applies to the other pair Maghrib/’Ishā’ as well, with the only difference that in the latter case we speak of the first third of the night as the chosen time, and what is past the first third of the night till dawn as the compulsory time (which is shared by the two of them), and we make no reference to rays of the sun which turn yellow.


 



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